Last year, we had a series of posts on so-called “golden visa” and “golden passport” programs—systems in which countries allow foreign nationals to obtain permanent residence (in the case of golden visa programs) or even citizenship (in the case of golden passport programs) in exchange for a sufficiently large investment in the country, or in some cases for a straight-up cash payment to the government. (See here, here, here, and here.) These programs raise three corruption-related concerns:
- First, in the eyes of some critics, the programs are themselves a form of (legalized) corruption, enabling individuals to use money to purchase something (permanent residence or citizenship) that should not be for sale.
- Second, even if we adopt a narrower understanding of corruption, golden visa and golden passport programs may make it easier for corrupt officials and their cronies (as well as other wealthy criminals) to find safe havens for themselves and their money.
- Third, while several countries have rules designed to deal with the preceding problem, these rules can generate considerable corruption in the programs themselves, as individuals who are ineligible for golden visas or passports can bribe or otherwise corrupt those administering the system to skirt the rules.
Data on the extent of these or other problems, though, is a bit thin, in part because information on the operation of golden passport and golden visa programs—especially with regard to the individuals who take advantage of these programs—is generally not publicly available. But those interested in this topic—and concerned about the corruption risks or other problems associated with these programs—might be interested in a recent report from Al Jazeera, dubbed “The Cyprus Papers,” which analyzed leaked documents on the operation of Cyprus’s “golden passport” program between 2017 and 2019. (Golden passport programs in Cyprus and Malta have attracted particular concern because those two countries are EU members, thus making citizens of these countries EU citizens as well.)
Al Jazeera provides a user-friendly interactive webpage for exploring the results of its analysis of these leaked documents, and I recommend that those interested in this subject check it out. A few highlights: Continue reading